Strength Training Reduces Fat Accumulation and Improves Blood Lipid Profile Even in the Absence of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese ConditionRead the full article
Journal of Obesity focuses on topics such as obesity, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and risks associated with obesity.
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Emerging Nutritional Problem of Adult Population: Overweight/Obesity and Associated Factors in Addis Ababa City Communities, Ethiopia—A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Reproducibility of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Pregnancy and the Association of Body Composition with the Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Substudy of MUMS Cohort
Introduction. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a rapid and noninvasive method of body composition analysis; however, reproducibility between BIA instruments in pregnancy is uncertain. Adverse maternal body composition has been linked to pregnancy complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of three BIA instruments in pregnancy and analyse the relationship between the body composition and the GDM risk. Methods. A prospective cohort (n = 117) of women with singleton pregnancies participating in the Microbiome Understanding in Maternity Study (MUMS) at St. George Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Anthropometric measurements and BIA body composition were measured at ≤13 weeks (T1), 20–24 weeks (T2), and 32–36 weeks (T3) of gestation. Body fat percentage (BFP), total body water (TBW), and impedance were estimated by three BIA instruments: Bodystat 1500, RJL Quantum III, and Tanita BC-587. GDM status was recorded after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 28 weeks or earlier. Agreement between BIA instruments was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. Logistic regression modelling explored associations of BFP with GDM. Results. Method comparison reproducibility between Bodystat and RJL was stronger than between Bodystat and Tanita for both BFP and TBW% at all three time points. RJL overestimated BFP on average by 3.3% (), with limits of agreement within ±5% for all trimesters. Average BFP was not significantly different between Tanita and Bodystat although limits of agreement exceeded ±5%. GDM diagnosis was independently associated with increased BFP in T1 (adjusted OR 1.117 per 1% increase; 95% CI 1.020–1.224; ) and in T2 (adjusted OR 1.113 per 1% increase; 95% CI 1.010–1.226; ) and with Asian ethnicity in all models (OR 7.4–8.1). Conclusion. Reproducibility amongst instruments was moderate; therefore, interchangeability between instruments, particularly for research purposes, cannot be assumed. In this cohort, GDM risk was modestly associated with increasing BFP and strongly associated with Asian ethnicity.
The Association of General and Central Obesity with Dietary Patterns and Socioeconomic Status in Adult Women in Botswana
Dietary patterns and their association with general and central obesity among adult women were studied using a cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling in urban and rural areas nationwide in Botswana. The participants in the study were adult women (N = 1019), 18–75 years old. The dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis, and their associations with the body mass index and the weight-for-height ratio were examined. Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to identify six dietary patterns (fast foods, refined carbohydrates, vegetables and fruits, fish and nuts, Botswana traditional foods, and organ and red meat dietary pattern). Overall, 24.5% of the women were overweight (BMI 25.0–29.99 kg/m2) and 24.5% were obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2). A waist-to-height ratio greater than 0.5 was observed for 42.2% of the women. With adjustment for age and education, individuals in the highest tertile of the Botswana traditional food pattern had a significantly higher risk of general obesity (RR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07–1.84) and central obesity (RR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.97–1.48). With respect to the fish and nut pattern, a significant association was observed with central obesity only (RR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.18–1.72). The Botswana traditional food pattern, characterised by a high carbohydrate intake, was found to be associated with a high risk of obesity in this study. However, more research is required to assess other factors contributing to obesity in women so that appropriate intervention programs can be put in place to help control this epidemic.
Lipid-Induced Mechanisms of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a worldwide tendency to increase and depends on many components, which explains the complexity of diagnosis, approaches to the prevention, and treatment of this pathology. Insulin resistance (IR) is the crucial cause of the MetS pathogenesis, which develops against the background of abdominal obesity. In light of recent evidence, it has been shown that lipids, especially fatty acids (FAs), are important signaling molecules that regulate the signaling pathways of insulin and inflammatory mediators. On the one hand, the lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the body leads to impaired molecular mechanisms of glucose transport, the formation of unresolved inflammation. On the other hand, excessive formation of free fatty acids (FFAs) underlies the development of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in MetS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the participation of FAs and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of MetS will contribute to the development of new diagnostic methods and targeted therapy for this disease. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the study of the effect of fatty acids as modulators of insulin response and inflammatory process in the pathogenesis and treatment for MetS.
Overweight and Obesity Coexist with Thinness among Lao’s Urban Area Adolescents
Introduction. In recent decades, the developing countries of Southeast Asia, including the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), have experienced a rapid growth of their urban population. Partly as a result of that, issues of undernutrition and overnutrition became a significant public health problem. Objective. To examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their related factors, among the school-attending adolescents in the Lao capital of Vientiane. Methods. A cross-sectional data on 300 adolescents aged 15–19 were collected during the months of March, April, and May 2018 by means of a self-administrated questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were used to obtain data on height and weight. Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher exact tests, and univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied in the course of the statistical analysis. Results. The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (23.3%) and thinness (10.3%). Poor eating habits were noted in 67.0% of adolescents, even though 78.0% of them had a good knowledge of nutrition. Factors significantly associated with the overweight/obesity were low physical activities (aOR = 18.3; 95% CI: 5.51–60.66) and adolescents living with their guardians (aOR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08–0.79). Results also indicated that, in 47.3% of the cases, teachers, acting as a source of health and nutrition information, can prevent the risk of adolescents’ overweight/obesity (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.11–3.80) but not their thinness (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.17–0.88). Conclusions. Laotian adolescents are facing the spectrum of malnutrition in urban areas. To improve adolescents’ nutritional status, there is a need for a collaborative approach of public health agencies that would address the issues of an effective food and nutrition policy. The school curricula should also include programs on nutrition and physical education.
Does the Frequency of Watching Television Matters on Overweight and Obesity among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia?
Background. Studies in developed countries have revealed an association of different magnitudes between watching television and the risk of being overweight and obese among reproductive age women. Even so, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the Ethiopian population. Hence, the study aimed to assess the association between watching television with overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Ethiopian women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using secondary data analysis from 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey among women aged from 15 to 49 years. The samples were selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 10,074 women were included in the analysis. The outcome variables were both overweight and obesity, whereas the main exposure variable was the frequency of watching television. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for adjusting potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals was used to declare a statistically significant association. Results. The study found that watching television at least once a week was significantly associated with both overweight (AOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.20–2.73) and obesity (AOR: 3.76; 95% CI: 2.04–6.95). The study also divulged that the odds of overweight were higher among women aged 25–39 years (AOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.25–3.77) and 40–49 years (AOR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.45–5.00), urban residents (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI:1.17–2.65), attended higher education (AOR:2.11; 95% CI: 1.22–3.65), and richest in the wealth index (AOR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.71–4.68). Similarly, the odds of obesity were higher among women aged 25–39 years and 40–49 years, attended higher education, and the richest in wealth index. Conclusions. The results from this study demonstrated that watching television at least once a week is associated with obesity among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Therefore, a social behavioral change communication campaign needs to be taken to improve awareness regarding the harmful consequences of watching television for long hours. Further research studies should be conducted among men and adolescents to determine whether this positive association exists among that target population as well.