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Wearable Activity Tracking Device Use in an Adolescent Weight Management Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
https://www.pavimentoperpalestre.com/3088-dtit54835-femminile-flirtano.html Background. The use of physical activity tracker devices has increased within the general population. However, there is limited medical literature studying the efficacy of such devices in adolescents with obesity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using wearable activity tracking devices as an adjunct intervention on adolescents with obesity. obliquely Methods. Randomized controlled pilot trial evaluated the feasibility (attrition ≤50%) of an activity tracking intervention (ATI) and its effects on weight loss in adolescents with obesity enrolled in an adolescent weight management clinic (AWMC). Outcomes included feasibility (attrition rate) and absolute change in BMI. Differences between groups at 6, 12, and 18 weeks were examined. can i buy Pregabalin in canada Results. Forty-eight participants were enrolled in the study. Eighteen subjects were randomly assigned to the ATI group and 30 to control. The average age was 14.5 years. Overall, the majority of participants were Hispanic (56%). Sexes were equally distributed. The average baseline BMI was 37.5 kg/m2. At the study conclusion, the overall attrition rate was 52.1%, 44.4% in the ATI group versus 56.6% in the control group, with a differential attrition of 12.2%. The ATI and control groups each showed an absolute decrease in BMI of −0.25 and −2.77, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. buy modafinil sheffield Conclusion. The attrition rate in our study was >50%. Participation in the AWMC by the ATI and control groups resulted in maintenance of BMI and body weight for the study duration. However, the use of an activity tracking device was not associated with greater weight loss. This trial is registered with NCT03004378.
The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Ethiopian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke, and all-cause mortality. The burden of metabolic syndrome is emerging alarmingly in low- and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia; however, there is lack of comprehensive estimation. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Methods. This systematic review and meta-analysis included original articles of observational studies published in the English language. Searches were carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Africa Journals from conception to August 2020. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Subgroup analysis was also conducted based on sex/gender and study subjects. Egger’s test was used to assess publication bias. Results. Electronic and gray literature search retrieved 942 potentially relevant papers. After removing duplicates and screening with eligibility criteria, twenty-eight cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia was found to be 34.89% (95% CI: 26.77, 43.01) and 27.92% (95% CI: 21.32, 34.51) by using NCEP/ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in females 36.74% (95% CI: 20.72, 52.75) and 34.09% (95% CI: 26.68, 41.50) compared to males 22.22% (95% CI: 14.89, 29.56) and 24.82% (95% CI: 18.34, 31.31) by using IDF and NCEP/ATP III criteria, respectively. Subgroup analysis based on the study subjects using NCEP/ATP III showed that the weighted pooled prevalence was 63.78%(95% CI: 56.17, 71.40), 44.55% (95% CI: 30.71, 52.38), 23.09% (95% CI: 19.74, 26.45), 20.83% (95% CI: 18.64, 23.01), and 18.45% (95% CI: 13.89, 23.01) among type 2 diabetes patients, hypertensive patients, psychiatric patients, HIV patients on HAART, and working adults, respectively. The most frequent metabolic syndrome components were low HDL-C 51.0% (95% CI: 42.4, 59.7) and hypertriglyceridemia 39.7% (95% CI: 32.8, 46.6). Conclusions. The findings revealed an emerging high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Therefore, early intervention is required for the primary prevention of the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and the further reduction of the morbidity and mortality related to it.
Obesity Associated with Low Lean Mass and Low Bone Density Has Higher Impact on General Health in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
It is believed that the phenomenon of simultaneous changes in body composition could have a higher negative impact on general health. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of concomitant body composition disturbances and evaluate the association with dietary intake, sedentary behaviour, muscle strength, and performance. This is a cross-sectional study with 218 community-dwelling adults, aged 63 (59–69) years, both sexes (52% female) recruited from the Health Survey of the City of São Paulo. Assessments include appendicular lean mass (LM), fat mass and bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA, grip strength, time spent sitting, and dietary intake. Subjects were clustered into 8 groups: (1) normal, (2) osteopenia (OP), (3) low LM, (4) obesity, (5) OP + low LM, (6) obesity + OP, (7) obesity + low LM, and (8) obesity + OP + low LM. Statistical analyses include ANCOVA, the chi-square test, and linear regression models. 52 (23%) individuals presented obesity associated with another body composition change, with 14 (6%) having the combination of the 3 conditions (obesity + OP + low LM). All groups with obesity showed lower protein intake (); however, those with obesity or obesity + low LM spent more time in a sitting position (), and the group with obesity + OP + low LM had the lowest grip strength. The combination of obesity with low LM and OP presented the aggravating factor of being associated with lower grip strength. In a context of demographic and nutrition transition, the findings represent a demand for longitudinal investigations.
Strength Training Reduces Fat Accumulation and Improves Blood Lipid Profile Even in the Absence of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Condition
The aim was to investigate the effect of strength training on skeletal muscle morphology and metabolic adaptations in obese rats fed with unsaturated high-fat diet (HFD). The hypothesis was that strength training induces positive metabolic adaptations in obese rats despite impaired muscle hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats (n = 58) were randomized into two groups and fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 49.2% of fat. After induction and maintenance to obesity, the rats were divided into four groups: animals distributed in sedentary control (CS), control submitted to strength training protocol (CT), obese sedentary (ObS), and obese submitted to strength training protocol (ObT). The exercise protocol consisted of 10 weeks of training on a vertical ladder (three times a week) with a load attached to the animal’s tail. At the end of 10 weeks, strength training promoted positive changes in the body composition and metabolic parameters in obese animals. Specifically, ObT animals presented a reduction of 22.6% and 14.3% in body fat and adiposity index when compared to ObS, respectively. Furthermore, these rats had lower levels of triglycerides (ObT = 23.1 ± 9.5 vs. ObS = 30.4 ± 6.9 mg/dL) and leptin (ObT = 13.2 ± 7.2 vs. ObS = 20.5 ± 4.3 ng/mL). Training (ObT and CT) induced a greater strength gain when compared with the respective control groups. In addition, the weight of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle was higher in the ObT group than in the CT group, representing an increase of 26.1%. However, training did not promote hypertrophy as observed by a similar cross-sectional area of the FHL and plantar muscles. Based on these results, high-intensity strength training promoted an improvement of body composition and metabolic profile in obese rats that were fed a high-fat diet without skeletal muscle adaptations, becoming a relevant complementary strategy for the treatment of obesity.
Emerging Nutritional Problem of Adult Population: Overweight/Obesity and Associated Factors in Addis Ababa City Communities, Ethiopia—A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Obesity is an emerging public health problem in developing countries. There is limited study conducted in Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of obesity and its associated factors among adult population. Therefore, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of overweight/obesity and the associated factors among adults aged 25–64 years in Addis Ababa city community residents, Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 10, 2017, to May 20, 2017, in Addis Ababa. A total of 512 adults were recruited. A two-stage cluster followed by a systematic random sampling technique was used for sample selection. Data were collected using questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% CI was reported to show the strength of association. A value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. A total of 484 adults participated in the study with a response rate of 94.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among study participants was found to be 99 (21.5%) and 14 (2.9%), respectively. Males were 90% less likely to be obese when compared to females (AOR = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.01–0.84)). Illiterate people were 94% less likely to be obese compared to those who were literate people (AOR = 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01–0.44)). Nonhypertensive individuals were 86% less likely to be obese when compared to hypertensive (AOR = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.03–0.69)). Conclusion. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be considerably high in Addis Ababa city residents compared to the national figure. Being female, literate, and presence of hypertension are independent predictors of overweight/obesity in the study population. Thus, the concerned bodies should initiate efforts to tackle the newly emerging public health problem of the country and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in the inhabitants of city settings.
Reproducibility of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Pregnancy and the Association of Body Composition with the Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Substudy of MUMS Cohort
Introduction. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a rapid and noninvasive method of body composition analysis; however, reproducibility between BIA instruments in pregnancy is uncertain. Adverse maternal body composition has been linked to pregnancy complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of three BIA instruments in pregnancy and analyse the relationship between the body composition and the GDM risk. Methods. A prospective cohort (n = 117) of women with singleton pregnancies participating in the Microbiome Understanding in Maternity Study (MUMS) at St. George Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Anthropometric measurements and BIA body composition were measured at ≤13 weeks (T1), 20–24 weeks (T2), and 32–36 weeks (T3) of gestation. Body fat percentage (BFP), total body water (TBW), and impedance were estimated by three BIA instruments: Bodystat 1500, RJL Quantum III, and Tanita BC-587. GDM status was recorded after 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 28 weeks or earlier. Agreement between BIA instruments was assessed using Bland–Altman analysis. Logistic regression modelling explored associations of BFP with GDM. Results. Method comparison reproducibility between Bodystat and RJL was stronger than between Bodystat and Tanita for both BFP and TBW% at all three time points. RJL overestimated BFP on average by 3.3% (), with limits of agreement within ±5% for all trimesters. Average BFP was not significantly different between Tanita and Bodystat although limits of agreement exceeded ±5%. GDM diagnosis was independently associated with increased BFP in T1 (adjusted OR 1.117 per 1% increase; 95% CI 1.020–1.224; ) and in T2 (adjusted OR 1.113 per 1% increase; 95% CI 1.010–1.226; ) and with Asian ethnicity in all models (OR 7.4–8.1). Conclusion. Reproducibility amongst instruments was moderate; therefore, interchangeability between instruments, particularly for research purposes, cannot be assumed. In this cohort, GDM risk was modestly associated with increasing BFP and strongly associated with Asian ethnicity.